7 ancient African civilizations you should know about

Ancient Egypt: Flourished over three millennia until Roman absorption in 30 BCE. Mastered hieroglyphics, yielding rich historical documentation.

Kingdom of Kush: Emerged around 2,000 BCE in Nubia, engaging in trade and conflicts with Egypt. Assimilated Egyptian customs, evident in monuments like Meroë's pyramids.

Carthage: Founded by Phoenicians in 9th century BCE (modern Tunisia). Rivalled Rome commercially and militarily for two centuries. Hannibal's famous Alps crossing occurred during this period.

Land of Punt: Located south of the Red Sea, exact location unknown. Valued trading partner for ancient Egyptians. Queen Hatshepsut's expedition brought back incense, ivory, and myrrh trees.

Mauritania: Maghreb kingdom annexed by Rome in the first century. Moorish (Berber) influence seen in Cleopatra Selene's tomb in Cherchell, Algeria.

Kingdom of Aksum: Arose in first century Ethiopia, developed unique language, alphabet, and money. Left monuments, including obelisks. Became one of history's first Christian states.

Jolof Empire: Founded in 13th century Senegal and Gambia. Produced a common culture and language (Wolof). Skilled population in metallurgy. Empire split into several kingdoms in the 16th century.